Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0
Utricularia gibba
ZF-HD Family
Species TF ID Description
678292685ZF-HD family protein
678301053ZF-HD family protein
678310291ZF-HD family protein
678313238ZF-HD family protein
678338064ZF-HD family protein
678338117ZF-HD family protein
678357649ZF-HD family protein
678378075ZF-HD family protein
678378169ZF-HD family protein
678401489ZF-HD family protein
678402943ZF-HD family protein
678403501ZF-HD family protein
678411738ZF-HD family protein
678416711ZF-HD family protein
678421210ZF-HD family protein
678423049ZF-HD family protein
678425599ZF-HD family protein
678427101ZF-HD family protein
678438722ZF-HD family protein
678440650ZF-HD family protein
678444824ZF-HD family protein
678463098ZF-HD family protein
678468029ZF-HD family protein
ZF-HD Family Introduction

This group of sequences described by a 54-residue domain found in the N-terminal region of plant proteins, the vast majority of which contain a ZF-HD class homeobox domain toward the C terminus. The region between the two domains typically is rich in low complexity sequence. The companion ZF-HD homeobox domain is described in INTERPRO:IPR006455.

A one-hybrid screen resulted in the cloning of four different members of a novel class of plant homeodomain proteins, which are most likely involved in the mesophyll-specific expression of the C4 PEPCase gene in C4 species of the genus Flaveria. Inspection of the homeodomains of the four proteins reveals that they share many common features with homeodomains described so far, but there are also significant differences. Interestingly, this class of homeodomain proteins occurs also in Arabidopsis thaliana and other C3 plants. One-hybrid experiments as well as in vitro DNA binding studies confirmed that these novel homeodomain proteins specifically interact with the proximal region of the C4 PEPCase (C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase) gene. The N-terminal domains of the homeodomain proteins contain highly conserved sequence motifs. Two-hybrid experiments show that these motifs are sufficient to confer homo- or heterodimer formation between the proteins. Mutagenesis of conserved cysteine residues within the dimerization domain indicates that these residues are essential for dimer formation. Therefore, we designate this novel class of homeobox proteins ZF-HD, for zinc finger homeodomain protein. Our data suggest that the ZF-HD class of homeodomain proteins may be involved in the establishment of the characteristic expression pattern of the C4 PEPCase gene.

Windhovel A, Hein I, Dabrowa R, Stockhaus J.
Characterization of a novel class of plant homeodomain proteins that bind to the C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene of Flaveria trinervia.
Plant Mol Biol. 2001 Jan;45(2):201-14.
PMID: 11289511